Ebola – Das Dossier


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Was ist Ebola, und wie wirkt es sich aus?

Erreger und Übertragung

Die Ebola-Virus-Erkrankung ist eine schwere, oft tödlich verlaufende virale Infektionskrankheit. Die Viren können ein hämorrhagisches, also Virus Ebolamit Blutungen einhergehendes Fieber verursachen. Sie sind mit dem Marburg-Virus verwandt.

Das Ebola-Virus wird von verschiedenen Tierarten gelegentlich auf den Menschen übertragen (Zoonose). Der Übertragungsweg vom Tier auf den Menschen ist allerdings noch nicht vollends geklärt, und das tierische Reservoir, welches das Virus beherbergt, ist bis heute noch nicht genau bekannt. Verdächtigt werden verschiedene Arten von Fledermäusen und Flughunden in den tropischen und subtropischen Regionen Afrikas. Die Krankheit kann durch Kontakt mit Blut, Stuhl, Erbrochenem und anderen Körpersekreten einer erkrankten Person auch direkt von Mensch zu Mensch übertragen werden.

Krankheitsbild

Die Krankheit manifestiert sich zwei bis 21 Tage nach der Ansteckung mit grippeähnlichen Symptomen, d. h. mit Fieber, Unwohlsein, Kopf- und Gliederschmerzen sowie einer Rachenentzündung. Es folgen Erbrechen und Durchfall. Kommt es im weiteren Verlauf der Krankheit zu starken Gerinnungsstörungen, beginnen die Patienten zu bluten. Blutungen können am Zahnfleisch, im Magen-Darmtrakt, an Einstichstellen von Spritzen oder unter der Haut auftreten. Ebenso sind Leber- und Nierenversagen möglich. 50 bis 90 % der Erkrankten sterben. Die Behandlung beschränkt sich auf die Symptombekämpfung.

Verbreitung und Häufigkeit

Bis zum jüngsten Ausbruch in Guinea, Liberia und Sierra Leone wurden Epidemien bei Menschen lediglich in den tropischen und subtropischen Regionen Afrikas beobachtet, so in der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (früher Zaire), Republik Kongo (Kongo-Brazzaville), Uganda, Sudan und in Gabun. Durch Reisende importierte Fälle in westliche Industrieländer sind zwar möglich, aber äusserst selten.

Das Ansteckungsrisiko für Reisende ist sehr gering, da die Übertragung nahen Kontakt mit einem Patienten oder einem infizierten Tier erfordert. Es existieren weder ein Impfstoff noch eine spezifische Therapie.

Fragen zu Ebola

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Weitere Informationen finden Sie auf Alarm! 
und beim Bundesamt für Gesundheit
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Veröffentlicht/zuletzt geändert:  12. Oktober 2014 / 30. Januar 2015
Quelle: BAG
Bild: BAG

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